MANUSMRITI (Hindi Edition) by [SHASTRI, TIKAKAR - DR. Click here to browse eBooks by Surendra Mohan Pathak, Munshi Premchand, Devdutt Pattanaik. मनुष्य ने जब समाज व राष्ट्र्र के अस्तित्व तथा महत्त्व कौ मान्यता दी, तो उसके कर्तव्यों और अधिकारों की व्याख्या. Manusmriti hindi book consist of codes and conduct which where framed in different period of time so their applicability is not universal. Though.
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Manusmriti. You are about to download Manusmriti hindi book pdf for free – Don't forget to like us on facebook & share with your friends to keep us motivated to. Manusmriti. bySwami, Pt. Tulsiram. Publication LanguageHindi. Book Source: Digital Library of eBooks and Texts. Uploaded by Public. Sanskrit Text & Hindi Translation of Manu Smriti. IdentifierManuSmritHindi- GpDwivedi. Identifier-arkark://t1pg2f70c. OcrABBYY.
Rape of Dalit Girls Rape of dalit girls is a common crime in rural India and the upper caste people do not follow the rules of untouchability in this case. Sometimes this serves the upper castes in two ways — fulfillment of perverted desires and punishment for protests or attempts to exercise political rights by dalit women Devi, Vidya, Practice of Bonded Labor System Bonded labor in India, also known as Debt Bondage and Peonage, arises from taking loans by the poor which cannot be repaid and the borrower according to the terms and conditions for default is obliged to serve as the slave of the lender.
The sons and daughters of the miserable borrower in most of the cases inherit the slavery due to un-repaid loans by parents. Once a dalit or for that matter any other poor person takes loan from a money lender who, in rural India, is in most of the cases also a big or medium land owner and trader in crops , he falls into a snare from which he would never be able to free himself.
The amount of loan goes on snowballing through accumulation of interest and more through manipulations for example putting additional zeros to the right of the original amount and ultimately according to the terms and conditions of borrowing which the illiterate borrower could never read or understand at the time of borrowing , the borrower becomes the slave of the lender for life and also for his descendants after his death Srivastava, Ravi, S.
But the heinous practice still rampant in rural India. The basic objective of this article is to get down to the depth of human psychosis that gives rise to the exploitative and discriminatory socio-economic practices as depicted above or in any other form prevalent in other societies, ancient or modern.
Section-V Human Modes and Psychosis of Exploitation — the Samkhya Concepts According to Samkhya Philosophy2, human consciousness is a part of material manifestation of Nature and it is the combination of three modes viz. All our mental and intellectual faculties originate from these three basic modes Ballantyne I. Accordingly all individuals may be classified broadly into three major categories detail given in Appendix-II. Of the three modes viz. The practice of creating rules for virtual slavery of the majority in the name of religion or divine providence, originated in time immemorial from the basic human mode which may be termed rajas in accordance with Samkhya.
The situation may be broadly depicted to have a first hand idea in the following manner. Now let us take up the relevant aspects from Samkhya proper and explain the above matter in detail and more deeply and elaborately.
If one is capable of grasping the essence of this aspect of Samkhya he would not only be able to explain and devise remedial measures for dalit issues or similar exploitative mechanisms but also that pertaining to most other maladies human society has been afflicted with since ancient times or originated during historical past or even in recent times. The most elaborate analysis of aphorisms of Samkhya is found in the Indian philosophical text a part of the epic Mahabharata Gita.
Let us have a glimpse of the analysis of Samkhya in Gita. Gita and Samkhya The sacred Hindu scripture Gita describes in detail the various aspects of these basic attributes Telang Gita: Nature fetters the eternal individual soul to the body by the three modes viz.
He may undertake austerity, acts of sacrifice and charity, but only to get something in return revenue, power, social positions etc. He cannot distinguish between righteousness and unrighteousness, and right and wrong action. A tamasika person is full of inertia leading to ignorance, delusion, slowness of mind, carelessness, laziness, inactivity, excessive sleep, vulgarity, malice. He performs sacrifices only as a mechanistic ritual, observes austerity with foolish stubbornness, with self-torture or for harming others, and undertakes charity without paying respect to the receiver.
His head is full of irrational and baseless knowledge, fear, grief, despair, fatalism and he undertakes action out of delusion, disregarding his abilities and loss or injury to others. He is always depressed and procrastinating. He accepts unrighteousness as righteousness and thinks everything to be that which it is not.
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In a country like India tamasika forces manifest mainly through: 1. Religious and Other Superstitions 2. Unnecessary and Burdensome Religious Rites 3. Blind Devotion to Religious Priests and Gurus 4. Blind Devotion to All Categories of Celebrities 6. Poverty and Illiteracy Ripus: Now let us take up another concept of Hindu philosophy, viz. In general ripus means enemies.
These ripus in Hindu philosophy are excesses of some basic instincts or reflexes of human mind or intellect. They are necessary for our material existence.
So as such they are not enemies. But for beneficial effects they must be balanced and kept under our control.
If they are in excess, they become our enemies and result in disastrous effects both for us and for the human society. The western scholars often mistakenly translate ripu as sin.
But ripus are not sins, rather sources of sins or vices. Those who are skilled in the Yogas say that the realization of the identity between the Jivatma and the Paramatma is Yoga O Sinless One!
The enemies to this Yoga are six; and they are lust, anger, greed, ignorance, vanity and jealousy. Ripus under rajasika: for rajasika persons the ripus combine to result insatiable greed and power mongering and to dominate over other persons and society.
The basic instincts, pertaining to the ripus, can be used for good or bad, but by themselves they are neutral. Sexual desire is normal and good, but sexual obsession is harmful. Controlled anger is also a necessary element that makes us human -- without it we cannot have respectability. Greed is a form of desire -- it can be an insatiable foolish desire or positive desire that can be used as an incentive for progress.
Likewise, vanity and pride are necessary for self respect and envy can foster healthy competition. If the basic instincts are kept under control, they are always beneficial, but if they get the better of us, they turn into enemies and ruin us in the short or long run.
Gita considers Kama in the wider sense it means the desire for worldly pleasures , Krodha anger and Lobha greed the most serious among the ripus. Therefore, one must learn to give up these three.
Gita describes how ripus originate from the perverted attachment to worldly pleasures and lead one on to the path of destruction. Desire for sense objects comes from attachment to sense objects, and anger comes from unfulfilled desires.
Gita: 2. The mind is bewildered by delusion. Reasoning is destroyed when the mind is bewildered. One falls down from the right path when reasoning is destroyed.
The ripus take various major forms under different modes. For satvika persons they are fully controlled and turn out benign — they reside in such a person in perfect harmony with ethical living. To him Kama, in the narrow sense, gets sublimated by love and associated with birth of children, and in the wider sense it turns into desire for knowledge and wisdom; Krodha becomes reserved demeanor that inspires respect in the honest persons, and awe in the miscreants, Lobha turns into hankering for getting access of the unknown eternal being; Mada turns into dignity, confidence and self respect; Moha turns into strict adherence to ethical and righteous living; Matsarya jealousy gets converted into love, fellow feeling and philanthropy.
For a rajasika person, Kama in the narrow sense takes the form of preoccupation with sensual pleasure, and in the wider sense it leads to insatiable craving for power and wealth by just or unjust means ; Krodha takes the form of secret planning and conspiracy for taking reprisals; Lobha gets associated with achieving all sorts of material pleasures, power, fame etc. For a tamasika person Kama is associated with perverse and brutal sexual desire, forceful violation of the opposite sex, incest and unnatural sex behaviour.
His Krodha is blind and destructive, both for others and for himself; his Lobha centers on all conceivable dirty and shabby pleasures — addictions to drugs, alcohol etc. For him, Mada leads to false vanity and day-dreaming; Moha is full of superstitions, baseless knowledge and inactivity; Matsarya burns his soul and goads him to inflict harm to others.
For him the ripus result in inertia, fatalism and submission to slavery.
The rajasika people try to force the majority to languish in the tamasika state so as to rule them and build up their economic and social power by enslaving them and extracting their surplus products. Coming to our context, the people in the upper strata of the society are in the rajasika state and the dalits are forced to be at the lowest echelon of the tamasika state through poverty, illiteracy, social customs, false religious beliefs, and legal measures by the state machinery which is being controlled by the rajasika minority.
In earlier systems in India the rajasika feudal or semi-feudal rulers, the priests, and the businessmen thrived on the economic exploitation social and political deprivations were necessary to perpetuate the economic exploitation of the lower tamasika strata, mainly the dalits. In the era of globalization, politicians and political parties in our country have turned into mere characters in a puppet-show, the operators being the capitalists -- now-a- days, the rajasika Multinational Corporations MNCs , who want to bind the entire world with the chains of slavery.
Within the LDCs, the politicians who themselves are slaves of the capitalists thrive on slavery of the tamasika masses.
In the next section we are going to look into the possible way out of the dilemma. All these efforts have turned out to be inefficacious mainly because they have looked upon the basic issues superficially failing to comprehend the basic cause which lies deep in human psychology. Thereafter an attempt would be made to eke out a probable solution in the light of the Samkhya Philosophy.
Section-VI The Way Out 1 The Marxian Approach for quotes see Appendix-IV Now as regards the cause of oppression, exploitation, and increasing poverty and inequality along with material progress Marx and Engels held class society and the institution of private property responsible.
But because of either superficial observation or obsession with some specific motive, they failed to visualize that these are but manifestations of some deeper cause inherent in human nature. They, in fact, identified the effect as the cause and lapsed into the tautological fallacy. They also invented the concept of class struggle as the sole cause of transformation of human society from one stage to another and also found in it the ultimate means of resolving the problem Marx and Engels, , ch-1, PP.
Marx and Engels strongly asserted that their concepts had been derived from historical facts rather than invention Ibid. The conviction of Marx and Engels that class struggle had played the crucial role in every qualitative transition of human society in the past is hardly convincing — it is neither supported by historical facts nor can it be substantiated by any logically consistent theory. So is also the prediction of a stateless-classless society.
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Moreover their apparently factual stages of development were based mainly on the observations of the economic history of some developed European countries, especially, the United Kingdom.
These stages are difficult to find in Asiatic countries like India, China etc. Now think of the so called proletarian philosophy. The depth of knowledge and introspection required to grasp the essence of the Marxian world outlook can hardly be found among the wage-earning class. Thus it is simply a world outlook invented by the speculative faculty of a highly intelligent and well read middleclass intellectual like Karl Marx who claimed it to be springing from the historical experience of the labour class.
Nothing could be more ludicrous than this. Ironically, the Socialistic States, which were conceived as a means to do away with social injustice, ultimately degenerated into another instrument of human slavery Fast , Solzhenitsyn , , Ultimately, most of the oppressive socialist regimes collapsed during late s and early s4.
Marx failed to realize because of either superficial observation or myopic view or parochial obsessions that causes of poverty, inequality, exploitation and similar maladies do not lie in private property, family relations, the state or any other visible phenomenon as such, but it lies deep in human nature, in the unethical sentiments like greed, pride, jealousy etc. So, eradication of the maladies, if at all possible, is to be accomplished by some process that would reduce the prevalence of these basic vices in human mind.
But any deep observation of the Cultural Revolution would reveal that the Maoist method was simply the shibboleth of class struggle. Indefatigable Mao endeavoured to prevent China from going the Soviet way, although he, too, ultimately failed because of his wrongly chosen means, viz. Nonetheless, it would be a grave injustice to Mao if we fail to appreciate his historical contribution as one of the greatest warriors against exploitation and injustice. The following developments prompted Mao to hastily resort to the CR: Mao wanted to adopt radical Marxist policies in order to pave the way for a rapid transition of the Chinese economy from a semi-feudal condition to socialism.
Mao, notwithstanding his noble intentions, failed to realize that his methods would not work in a country still dominated by tamasika masses, government officials and members of the communist party.
The inevitable consequence was miserable failure leading to economic disaster and death of millions of people by famine.
When, being clothed with minute particles only , it enters into vegetable or animal seed, it then assumes, united with the fine body , a new corporeal frame.
Thus he, the imperishable one, by alternately waking and slumbering, incessantly revivifies and destroys this whole movable and immovable creation. But he having composed these Institutes of the sacred law , himself taught them, according to the rule, to me alone in the beginning; next I taught them to Mariki and the other sages.
Bhrigu, here, will fully recite to you these Institutes; for that sage learned the whole in its entirety from me. Then that great sage Bhrigu, being thus addressed by Manu, spoke, pleased in his heart, to all the sages, 'Listen! Six other high-minded, very powerful Manus, who belong to the race of this Manu, the descendant of the Self-existent Svayambhu , and who have severally produced created beings, These seven very glorious Manus, the first among whom is Svayambhuva, produced and protected this whole movable and immovable creation , each during the period allotted to him.
Eighteen nimeshas twinklings of the eye, are one kashtha , thirty kashthas one kala, thirty kalas one muhurta, and as many muhurtas one day and night. The sun divides days and nights, both human and divine, the night being intended for the repose of created beings and the day for exertion.
A month is a day and a night of the manes, but the division is according to fortnights. The dark fortnight is their day for active exertion, the bright fortnight their night for sleep. A year is a day and a night of the gods; their division is as follows : the half year during which the sun progresses to the north will be the day, that during which it goes southwards the night. But hear now the brief description of the duration of a night and a day of Brahman and of the several ages of the world, yuga according to their order.
They declare that the Krita age consists of four thousand years of the gods ; the twilight preceding it consists of as many hundreds, and the twilight following it of the same number. In the other three ages with their twilights preceding and following, the thousands and hundreds are diminished by one in each.
These twelve thousand years which thus have been just mentioned as the total of four human ages, are called one age of the gods. But know that the sum of one thousand ages of the gods makes one day of Brahman, and that his night has the same length. Those only, who know that the holy day of Brahman, indeed, ends after the completion of one thousand ages of the gods and that his night lasts as long, are really men acquainted with the length of days and nights.
At the end of that day and night he who was asleep, awakes and, after awaking, creates mind, which is both real and unreal. Mind, impelled by Brahman's desire to create, performs the work of creation by modifying itself, thence ether is produced; they declare that sound is the quality of the latter.
But from ether, modifying itself, springs the pure, powerful wind, the vehicle of all perfumes; that is held to possess the quality of touch. Next from wind modifying itself, proceeds the brilliant light, which illuminates and dispels darkness; that is declared to possess the quality of colour; And from light, modifying itself, is produced water, possessing the quality of taste, from water earth which has the quality of smell; such is the creation in the beginning.
The before-mentioned age of the gods, or twelve thousand of their years , being multiplied by seventy-one, constitutes what is here named the period of a Manu Manvantara. The Manvantaras, the creations and destructions of the world, are numberless; sporting, as it were, Brahman repeats this again and again.
In the Krita age Dharma is four-footed and entire, and so is Truth; nor does any gain accrue to men by unrighteousness. In the other three ages , by reason of unjust gains agama , Dharma is deprived successively of one foot, and through the prevalence of theft, falsehood, and fraud the merit gained by men is diminished by one fourth in each.
Men are free from disease, accomplish all their aims, and live four hundred years in the Krita age, but in the Treta and in each of the succeeding ages their life is lessened by one quarter.
The life of mortals, mentioned in the Veda, the desired results of sacrificial rites and the supernatural power of embodied spirits are fruits proportioned among men according to the character of the age. One set of duties is prescribed for men in the Krita age, different ones in the Treta and in the Dvapara, and again another set in the Kali, in a proportion as those ages decrease in length.
In the Krita age the chief virtue is declared to be the performance of austerities, in the Treta divine knowledge, in the Dvapara the performance of sacrifices, in the Kali liberality alone.
But in order to protect this universe He, the most resplendent one, assigned separate duties and occupations to those who sprang from his mouth, arms, thighs, and feet. To Brahmanas he assigned teaching and studying the Veda , sacrificing for their own benefit and for others, giving and accepting of alms. The Kshatriya he commanded to protect the people, to bestow gifts, to offer sacrifices, to study the Veda , and to abstain from attaching himself to sensual pleasures; The Vaisya to tend cattle, to bestow gifts, to offer sacrifices, to study the Veda , to trade, to lend money, and to cultivate land.
One occupation only the lord prescribed to the Sudra, to serve meekly even these other three castes. Man is stated to be purer above the navel than below ; hence the Self-existent Svayambhu has declared the purest part of him to be his mouth.
As the Brahmana sprang from Brahman's mouth, as he was the first-born, and as he possesses the Veda, he is by right the lord of this whole creation. For the Self-existent Svayambhu , having performed austerities, produced him first from his own mouth, in order that the offerings might be conveyed to the gods and manes and that this universe might be preserved. What created being can surpass him, through whose mouth the gods continually consume the sacrificial viands and the manes the offerings to the dead?
Of created beings the most excellent are said to be those which are animated; of the animated, those which subsist by intelligence; of the intelligent, mankind; and of men, the Brahmanas; Studies in Hindu Law and Dharma. Download free ebooks at BookChums Download. This manual books file was taken.
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In Hindi Books.Blind Devotion to All Categories of Celebrities 6. The basic objective of this article is to get down to the depth of human psychosis that gives rise to the exploitative and discriminatory socio-economic practices as depicted above or in any other form prevalent in other societies, ancient or modern. Pahle aap Manusmruti ko padho aur bad me bate karo. A year is a day and a night of the gods; their division is as follows : the half year during which the sun progresses to the north will be the day, that during which it goes southwards the night.
Desi Mizaz 28 June at Once a dalit or for that matter any other poor person takes loan from a money lender who, in rural India, is in most of the cases also a big or medium land owner and trader in crops , he falls into a snare from which he would never be able to free himself.