IEEE 1547.1 EBOOK

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IEEE Overview. IEEE P Draft Standard for Conformance Test. Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting. Distributed Resources with Electric. IEEE CONFORMANCE TEST PROCEDURES FOR EQUIPMENT INTERCONNECTING DISTRIBUTED RESOURCES WITH ELECTRIC POWER. IEEE Title: IEEE Standard Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems. Link.


Ieee 1547.1 Ebook

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Edition/Format: eBook: Document: English. Summary: Keywords: IEEE . Other Titles: IEEE Std a (Amendment to IEEE Std ). third party content be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). requirements, conformance tests to the IEEE standard are conducted. EPUB Ebook here { quollevcomeedart.cf }. . IEEE and Microgrids Tom Key Senior Technical Executive EPRI Baltimore, IEEE P WG Meeting at National Grid Collaboration with All . PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: IEEE a and a: Removing the Barriers.

ComRent provides trained technicians and specialized monitoring equipment to observe and report on required power systems tests and solar module tests. Our service solution saves utilities critical engineering labor, provides credible documentation and allows for trouble shooting before the system is energized. Advantages of Witness Testing Witness testing for solar PV power plants provides many advantages, including: Reduce the reliance on utility engineer availability and allowing your construction and commissioning schedule to move forward within budget.

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Provide documentation that the required solar module tests were performed and the system met the requirements outlined in the utility guides and IEEE Simplify the pre-grid testing by making it an on-demand process.

You gain greater control over your load testing schedule and can test at any time.

Accelerate the testing schedule for quicker time-to-revenue. If you must wait for the grid to test your solar PV power plant, you will incur more time and costs. Adhere to contractual obligations and avoiding penalties from utilities. Witness testing lets you supply power within the agreed upon timeframe. Ensure solar PV power plants are tested completely to operational specifications and validating system performance. Meet qualifying deadlines for federal and state renewable energy production tax credits.

One is kilowatts, known as real power, and the other is known reactive power, or kilovolt-ampere reactive. Kilovolt-ampere reactive is power loss that is typically caused by inductive loads found in things such as electric motors and transformers. In simple terms, power factor basically tells us how much power is real power, kilowatts. Ideally, the closer the power factor is to 1, the more real power and less reactive power is being used. A power factor of 1 means that all the power being used is efficient.

A smaller power factor equates to less efficient use of power. This is because the smaller power factor requires more current to run the same load.

Thus, it is best to try and keep the power factor as close to 1 as possible. The utilities are very aware of this and must provide opposing reactive power to counteract the inefficiency.

The utilities incur extra cost to correct the power factor and pass this cost to the customer. Most utilities set up a power factor threshold.

Any time the average power factor drops below this threshold, power factor penalties will apply. How does this relate to solar PV? Solar PV produces real power kilowatts with a power factor close to 1.

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On the customer side of the meter, solar PV systems displace the amount of real power that the utility is supplying. Keep in mind that power factor is a ratio of real power being used.

So, if we look at the power factor from the utility side of the meter, the power factor would decrease. If the decrease is enough to pull the power factor below the threshold, a penalty demand charge would be added to the bill.

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The more real power the PV system displaces, the lower the power factor could be, thus increasing the power factor penalties see Figure 2. From the utility side of the meter, the utility would be suppling less real power. And the kilovolt-ampere reactive would remain constant. The meter now measures higher reactive power relative to the real power. From the perspective of the utility, extra measures have to be taken to counteract the lower power factor.

JPE 19-2 - page 188

So, depending on the power factor, before installing a PV system, the building could have enough power factor margin to avoid power factor penalties.

There is another power factor threshold below the penalty threshold. Utilities also have a minimum allowable tolerable power factor that must be met.

If any connected electrical system drops below the minimum power factor, the utility could potentially disconnect power until the power factor problem is corrected. The solar PV system may not pull the power factor down to this level; it is just some information that must be considered.

Armed with this information, solutions could be used, such as installing a capacitive bank to help raise the power factor. These are not the only factors that contribute to the feasibility study; they are just a few key points. There are other factors that also have a high influence on the bottom line. Connection agreements Solar PV interconnection agreements can drive up the cost of solar installations.

Some utilities have extensive testing requirements under IEEE Some of these testing requirements can add substantial cost to the solar PV system. Thus, it is important to consider the costs of required tests into the cost of installing a commercial solar system. This can impact the ROI and payback period. Connection agreements also describe how the utility will handle charges or credits for excess electricity produced.

These factors can add up to a good feasibility study. Other crucial factors are the unique circumstances of each site. Site-specific requirements Many site-specific requirements also must be addressed in feasibility studies.

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In Example 2 mentioned earlier in this article, the military base also has restrictive areas that must be addressed. Military bases and air fields have required clear zones, which restrict the kind of structures that can be built in these areas. In this example, the military has plenty of space to install a utility-scale system.

However, all of the available open spaces have some extensive low-lying flood-susceptible areas. In this situation, the cost of installing a PV system is extensive, due to the amounts of fill required to raise the level of the land area.

Mandated studies In a few cases, special studies are required before a solar system can be installed. The Federal Aviation Administration requires a glint-and-glare study to be performed on any solar project within an airfield property.

The analysis determines how the glare from the solar panels could affect aircraft and control towers along the landing and departure flight paths. The study should determine the intensity and time of day the glare can be most disruptive.

Sometimes, a simple degree of change in tilt angle or compass direction can solve a potential problem before installation. Identifying this issue upfront can prevent additional cost from having to changing the angles after the fact.

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Return on investment This is where it all comes together. All the information that has been discovered from the investigation can now be put together and develop a big-picture scenario through the ROI. When calculating a return on investment, several points must be considered.

Many times, an ROI is shown without a time frame or payback period. Without the payback period, it is difficult for the client to make an evaluation and determine the financial risks. So, one of the best ways to present this is to show a spreadsheet that depicts the present value as time goes on. As an example, several ROI scenarios are typically created to demonstrate two things. First, how a graph derived from a spreadsheet with the right information can serve a good ROI analysis.

Second, how the utility billing can be affected by the size of the solar PV system. Below are examples of two identical buildings that are located across the street from each other. Both have the same electrical loads except for power factor PF.What does all this mean? If any connected electrical system drops below the minimum power factor, the utility could potentially disconnect power until the power factor problem is corrected.

Thus, it is important to consider the costs of required tests into the cost of installing a commercial solar system. We work with industry stakeholders to design Standards that help mitigate the potential risk of fire and electrical hazards, and enhance the overall safety of batteries for electric vehicles. UL , the Standard for Portable Power Packs, can address a variety of battery uses, ranging from automotive jump-starters to survival backup power systems.

So, depending on the power factor, before installing a PV system, the building could have enough power factor margin to avoid power factor penalties. There is another power factor threshold below the penalty threshold.