Electrotherapy. Simplified. Basanta Kumar Nanda. BPT(Hons) MPT. Sr Physiotherapist-cum-Jr Lecturer. Swami Vivekanand National Institute of. Rehabilitation. download Electrotherapy Simplified - Basanta Kumar quollevcomeedart.cf Download PDF ยท Read online. Title, Electrotherapy Simplified. Author, Basanta Kumar Nanda. KUMAR NANDA. Download PDF Ebook and Read OnlineElectrotherapy Simplified 1st Edition By Basanta Kumar. Nanda. Get Electrotherapy Simplified 1st.

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Electrotherapy Simplified by Basanta Kumar Nanda, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Electrotherapy simplified thoroughly revised second edition, covers the Electrotherapy Simplified (Second Edition): Basanta Kumar Nanda (Author), SS Rau. quollevcomeedart.cf: Electrotherapy Simplified: As New.

Electrotherapy Simplified

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Beth A. Respiratory Physiotherapy. Beverley Harden. Deep Tissue Massage. Jane Johnson. The Vital Glutes. It is the resistance offered to current flow by a column of mercury 1.

Cause of resistance of a conductor: Resistance of a given conducting wire is due to the collisions of free electrons with the ions or atoms of the conductor while drifting toward the positive end of the conductor which in turn depends upon the arrangement of atoms in the conducting material silver, copper, etc.

Resistance is directly proportional to length and inversely proportional to area of crosssection, temperature and number of free electrons in a unit volume.

It states that, The current flowing through a metallic conductor is proportional to the potential difference across its ends, provided that all physical conditions remain constant. Temperature of the conductor should remain constant.

The conducting body should not be deformed. It takes place in metallic conductors only. Resistance in Series If the components of a circuit are connected in series, there is only one possible pathway for the current, i.

The total resistance equals the sum of individual resistances Fig. Resistance in Parallel In this case, there are a number of alternative routes offered to the current.

However, potential difference remains the same.

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Potential difference across A and B is V. Electric conductivity: The inverse of resistivity of a conductor is called its conductivity. The Rheostat Rheostat is a device used to regulate current by altering either the resistance of the current or potential in the part of the circuit. It consists of a coil of high resistance wire wound onto an insulating block with each turn insulated from adjacent turns.

Types There are two types of rheostat: 1. Series rheostat: In this, the rheostat is wired in series with the apparatus. If all the wires in the rheostat are included in the circuit, resistance is at its maximum and current at its lowest. In the physiotherapy department, it is found in the apparatus where an effect on the degree of heating is required.

For example: for wax baths. It is also known as variable rheostat. Shunt rheostat: It is wired across a source of potential difference and any other circuit has to be taken off in parallel to it.

This apparatus has a current regulating mechanism in which an electric current is applied directly to the patient, as the current intensity can be increased gradually from zero upto maximum. It is also known as potentiometer rheostat. For example, vacuum tubes, semiconductor diode, liquid electrolyte, transistor, etc. The value of R is constant for Ohmic conductors but not so for non-Ohmic conductors.

Thermistors A thermistor is a heat sensitive device whose resistivity changes very rapidly with the change of temperature. The thermistors are usually prepared from the oxides of nickel, copper, iron, cobalt, etc. These are generally in the form of beads, discs or rods. Pair of platinum leads is attached at the two ends of the electric connections. This arrangement is sealed in a small glass bulb. A thermistor can have a resistance in the range of 0. A thermistor can be used over a wide range of temperatures.

Important applications of thermistors: 1. Thermistors can be used to detect small temperature changes. Thermistors are used to safeguard the filament of the picture tube of a television set against the variation of electric current. Thermistors are used in temperature control units of industry.

Thermistors are used for voltage stabilization. Thermistors are used in the protection of windings of generators, transformers and motors. Semiconductors Semiconductors are elements whose conductivity is between conductors and insulators.

Elements such as germanium, silicon and carbon are insulators of electricity. But when impurities are added to it, they become semiconductors. Semiconductors are insulators at low temperature. The process of deliberate addition of impurities to a pure semiconductor to enhance conductivity is called doping. The impurity atoms are called dopants.

The semiconductors are thus called n-type or p-type. The n-type is with excess of electrons and p-type is with deficient electron. Types of Semiconductors Semiconductors are of two types: 1. Intrinsic semiconductors 2. Extrinsic semiconductors Intrinsic semiconductors: A pure semiconductor which is free of every impurity is called intrinsic semiconductor. Germanium and silicon are important examples of intrinsic semiconductors which are widely used in electronics industry.

Extrinsic semiconductors: A doped semiconductor or a semiconductor with suitable impurity atoms added to it is called extrinsic semiconductor.

Extrinsic semiconductor is of two types: 1. N- type semiconductor 2. P-type semiconductor 17 18 Textbook of Electrotherapy N-type semiconductor: When a pure semiconductor of silicon Si in which each Si atom has four valence electrons, is doped with a controlled amount of pentavalent atoms, say arsenic or phosphorous or antimony or bismuth, which have five valence electrons, the impurity atoms will replace the silicon atoms.

The four of the five valence electrons of the impurity atoms will form covalent bonds by sharing the electrons with the adjoining four atoms of silicon, while the fifth electron is very loosely bound with the parent impurity atom and is comparatively free to move Fig. These impurity atoms which donate free electrons for the conduction are called donor atoms. Since the conduction of electricity is due to the motion of electrons, i.

On giving up their fifth electron, the donor atoms become positively charged. However, the matter remains electrically neutral as a whole. P-type semiconductor: When a pure semiconductor of silicon Si in which atom has four valence electrons is doped with a controlled amount of trivalent atoms say indium In or boron B or aluminium Al which have three valence electrons, the impurity atoms will replace the silicon atoms Fig.

The three valence electrons of the impurity atom will form covalent bonds by sharing the electrons of the adjoining three atoms of silicon, while there will be one incomplete covalent bond with the neighboring Si atom, due to the deficiency of an electron. This deficiency is completed by taking an electron from one of the Si-Si bonds, thus completing the In-Si bond. This makes Indium ionized negatively charged and creates a hole. An electron moving from a Si-Si bond to fill a hole, leaves a hole behind.

That is how, holes move in the semiconductor structure. The trivalent atoms are called acceptor atoms and the conduction of electricity due to motion of holes, i. That is why, the resulting semiconductor is called acceptor type or p-type semiconductor. Comprehensive proforma for the assessment of the patients condition has been formulated for the convenience of the students.

Methods of median nerve stimulation, ulnar nerve stimulation, radial nerve stimulation, Erbs paralysis, facial nerve stimulation, deltoid inhibition, quadriceps inhibition, lateral popliteal nerve stimulation, faradism under pressure and faradic foot bath have been explained in detail.

Common motor points have also been demonstrated. Chapter Three covers the Middle Frequency Currents. Interferential therapy, methods of treatment, advantages of interferential currents, physiological effects of interferential therapy have been explained in detail.

Russian currents and Rebox-type currents are also explained. Chapter Four covers the High Frequency Currents. Short wave diathermy, methods of applications, indications for use, physiological effects, therapeutic effects, dangers and contraindications are explained in detail.

Microwave diathermy, methods of applications, indications for use, physiological effects, therapeutic effects, dangers and contraindications are also explained in this chapter.

Long Wave Diathermy has been added. Chapter Five covers the Radiation Therapy.

Infrared therapy, ultraviolet radiation, types of generators, methods of applications, indications for use, physiological effects, thera- peutic effects, dangers and contraindications have been explained in detail. Chapter Six covers the Laser Therapy. Production of lasers, types of lasers, methods of application, indications for use, physiological effects, therapeutic effects, dangers and contraindications have been explained in detail. Chapter Seven covers the Superficial Heating Modalities.

Its composition, methods of applications, indications for use, physiological effects, therapeutic effects, dangers Preface to the Second Edition ix and contraindications have been explained in detail.

Hot packs, electric heating packs, whirlpool bath, contrast bath, heliotherapy and sauna bath have also been explained. Chapter Eight covers the Ultrasonic Therapy.

The production of ultrasound, thermal and mechanical effects of ultrasound, methods of applications, indications for use, physiological effects, therapeutic effects, dangers and contraindications have been explained in detail. Shockwave Therapy is also added. Chapter Nine covers the Cryotherapy. Methods of applications, indications for use, physiological effects, therapeutic effects, dangers and contraindications have been explained in detail.

Chapter Ten covers the Biofeedback. Its instrumentation, types of biofeedback, effects and uses, indications for use. Chapter Eleven covers the Electromyography. Its instrumentation, uses, study of electromyograph, spontaneous potential, insertional activity, motor unit action potential and recruitment pattern, abnormal potentials, spontaneous activity, positive sharp waves, fasciculation potential, and repetitive discharges have been explained in details.

Nerve conduction velocity, its instrumentation, sensory nerve conduction velocity, motor nerve conduction velocity, methods of stimulation and recording have also been included.

The H reflex, F wave, and their clinical significance have also been explained. Kinesiological Electromyography, surface and fine wire recording, placement of electrodes and its clinical importance have been explained.All Orders shipped with Tracking Number "About this title" may belong to another edition of this title.

Cause of heating effect of current: When a potential difference is applied across the ends of a conductor, an electric field is set up across its ends and the electric current flows through it.

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In , the headquarters of the University was shifted to Mumbai. Utmost efforts have been made to make this textbook up-to-date. Physiotherapy or Physical Therapy P.